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To analyze many of the contested public policies, especially in countries which were moving from a command to a market economy. These policies included education, health, housing, agrarian reform, agriculture, and food policies. Public-policy research has spread from Egypt to Jordan and Lebanon. The latter, in fact, now has a specialized institution in this area, the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies , established in the early 1990s. Among developing countries, this research area is one that the Arab world can claim as a notable strength. Points of strength in Arab social research remain relative — depending on the yardstick being used. Thus if the comparison is “Arab time,” the conclusion can be made that there has been marked progress in the 1980s and 1990s compared to earlier decades. However, by other international standards, Arab social research in general seems modest, or average, at best. However, there is tremendous promise in Arab social-research potential, previews of which have been displayed since the mid-1990s. Equally missing from the Arab social-science agenda in the 1990s is communication research. The rapid development of the electronic media has affected this area as much, if not more, as any region of the globe. Despite mushrooming academic departments in the field of mass communication, little research in this area has surfaced in this decade. The number of Arab satellites, broadcast television and radio stations, the number and volume of newspapers and other printed media has at least tripled in one decade. Yet this phenomenal growth is hardly reflected in Arab social research.

  • Annex Table A-4 contains individual US patent registration figures for 1997 for Arab countries.
  • As well, the region’s farmers also need advice on methods of storage, packaging, transport and marketing.
  • In this context, poverty and inequality gain new meanings that are related to such concepts as exclusion, marginalization, illegality, and powerlessness.
  • R&D is also a vital element in coping with the worldwide pace of technological change.

Despite the deterioration in the research environment in Egypt, there are still good researchers who are well-trained scientifically, and who can produce quality research if they are given the right opportunity. They must be supported by being allowed access to data, up-to-date bibliographic material, sophisticated equipment , good remuneration, and professional acknowledgment. Water is still the most scarce natural resource in the MENA region. By the mid-1990s, the price of a litre of purified drinking water was more than a litre of processed oil. Water management and/or conflict over water are already and bound to be even more prominent issues in the next century. The social and community-related dimensions of water-sharing should find an easy place on the research agenda of the MENA region. This is also an area of research in which foreign funding does not cause controversial debates. Without getting into detailed specifics, the general trends of the early decades of the 21st century are bound to be similar to those prevailing in the closing decade of the 20th century. There is an unmistakable quest for participation and inclusion in public life — locally, nationally, and globally. This quest is bound to have multiple and deep ramifications. As indicated in the section on Gaps in Arab social research, this type of research has not kept in tune or at pace with these ramifications. Let us recap and suggest the threads which must enter into a new Arab social science agenda for the 21st century. The 1980’s witnessed an active conscious movement among Arab social scientists to develop authentic Arab paradigms. Several conferences, seminars, and workshops were held for this purpose. As well, new pan-Arab professional associations were established, for example, the Arab Sociological Association , the Third World Forum , Arab Thought Forum , the Arab Political Science Association , and the Center for Arab Unity Studies . While nothing fully-fledged has developed yet, these initiatives have resulted in some large-scale research projects in the late 1980s and 1990s. These include the Future of Arab Homeland , Alternative Arab Futures , and Educating the Arab Nation in a New Century . Each of these projects resulted in the publication of several volumes as well as significant debates, but these only had a modest impact on Arab policy making. Symbolically, several of the new social-science research institutions have adopted names of noted Arab thinkers of the past, including Ibn-Khaldun, Ibn-Rushd, Ibn-Saini, and al-Nadim. Some of the classic publications authored by these and other Arab thinkers have been republished and re-interpreted by contemporary Arab social scientists, all of whom are searching for authentic paradigms. There are many areas in contemporary Arab life which are markedly understudied. These include the nature and role of Arab military in shaping state, society, and overall development. The subject is often considered too sensitive because of national security. The same taboo or self-censor by Arab researchers apply to topics of sex and sexuality; religious, sectarian and ethnic conflicts; elite recruitment, circulation and performance; corruption, nepotism and graft. Public opinion research is still absent in the majority of Arab countries. Urgent, but still lacking is Arab social research inputs on the socio-cultural consequences of natural or man-made disasters.

Chapter 10. Toward a more Qualified and Pertinent Research Agenda

Wrong product errors harm patients by depriving them of the benefit of the correct treatment and by subjecting them, unknowingly, to the risks and adverse effects of the mistakenly selected health product. Such errors can and do cause serious harm, up to and including death. Safety issues may still arise once a product is marketed and used by healthcare professionals, patients and consumers on a day-to-day basis in an uncontrolled environment . If a potential health risk is identified, Health Canada will address the issue and work in collaboration with a sponsor to develop mitigation strategies. Sponsors may be asked to change a name as a last resort if other risk mitigation strategies are not deemed sustainable. Eglal Rached is the Regional Director of the Middle East and North Africa Regional Office based in Cairo. Her research activities and her work with IDRC has been mainly concentrated on dryland resource management, especially integrated land and water management. Much of the social-science research in the Arab region is state-led and does not address the real problems of, and opportunities for, the poor. Participants stressed the need to support more work aiming at identifying how to enable communities to address their owns needs through research. A suggestion was made to support comparative research on community-based and grassroots experimentation, and to identify successful innovations and approaches. Another recommendation was made in favor of supporting NGOs, to enable them to put forward credible alternative-development models and policies. Finally, the need to support young social scientists within research projects was stressed.

Part of the chain effect is either to rely on foreign “experts” or do away with research altogether. Much of the current Arab social research still follows methodological tools and techniques which lag a few decades behind their counterpart in advanced countries. Not only is it mostly descriptive than inductive, but also more qualitative than quantitative. In the fewer instances when quantification is used, it is often of a cruder variety which does not enable the user to reach sophisticated understanding or formulate rational long-term plans. Though relatively new in the Arab world, the four newly-created countries have started to use public opinion surveys. These have been taken seriously by the leadership, which occasionally tries to suppress or dismiss the results — and often with contrary reactions . Such planning especially comes into play when decision-makers commission the researchers themselves either in preparation for launching new programs, or for project evaluation later on. Cairo-based Center for Environment and Development for the Arab region and Europe . Similar research is planned or anticipated on state reconstruction in war-torn Arab countries such as Somalia, Sudan, Algeria, and Iraq. Some of this policy-oriented research is being carried out by native scientists from these countries living in exile, such as the Center for Sudanese Studies , in Cairo. Some of the above-mentioned emerging social issues are dealt with below, but only insofar as they have materialized in the form of social research projects, completed or underway. The Arab-Israeli conflict and Palestine have been at the focus of regional politics for the last half century. For many Arab intellectuals, it is a civilizational and societal conflict. Instead of prescriptions, what is attempted below could be thought of as a set of necessary, but insufficient, conditions that would, in the opinion of the author, lead to a scientific revival in the Arab region. In contrast, if social scientists are to be successful, they can only describe, explain and understand, or even more tenuously, predict. The previous sections of this paper have attempted the first two tasks. A truly independent and non-profit status— not actually legally feasible in many Arab countries— might help overcome some of these problems. A consortium of donors might prove to be the optimum solution for financing problems. The idea of a consortium would also have the added advantage of reducing the stigma of foreign funding, particularly if Arab donors join the consortium. An endowment of approximately US $10 million, whose income would constitute the main revenue of an institute, would be the best modality for initial financing. Ideally, the endowment should be raised from Arab sources. This is not easy, and foreign contributions would probably be needed. Further, not many funding agencies are amenable to the idea of endowments and the amount proposed is — by current standards — rather large. Serving as a catalyst to mobilize local resources in order to enhance sustainability in the long run. In research, this approach implies encouraging the training of young scientists. However, in countries of the Arab region, few strong professional associations have been set up or have endured long enough to score significant achievements in their presumed areas of competence. In many cases, professional associations were torn by narrow-minded rivalries or outright corruption. They advance the profession as well as set and enforce standards, and in particular, ethical codes. Their advocacy work is indispensable, particularly that which is aimed at consolidating the institution of science in society, and especially vis-à-vis dominant powers. An impasse is then created because of the absence of peaceful, effective means of political action that enables the marginalized majority to work effectively for societal change — in its own favour. Escalation resorting to violence of different sorts often ensues. Violence by radical opposition forces at the hands of the state can be the most visible. But generalized violence —and violence against the rich — could be just as devastating. As a result, the state has generally managed to create a condition of “negative consent” on part of the people at large. As could be anticipated in such a situation, people are sinking into a morass of individual interest at the expense of collective welfare. The apathy of the Arab masses, particularly youth, is the other side of the coin inherent in this dominating state that marginalizes its “subjects.” The purpose of this section of the paper is to provide the beginnings of an understanding of the rather sorry state of science in the Arab region. The situation was discussed in the previous section through examination of the institution of science.

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In this respect, the huge, and widening, disparity in S&T development between Arab countries and Israel is likely to hamper the prospects for a just, enduring peace leading to prosperity for all in the region. On all indicators of scientific productivity considered, the Arab region is roughly comparable to the sub-Saharan Africa (though the latter scores better relative to GDP — Arab wealth is quite ineffective in this respect). The regional classification is based on country of residence, not nationality. The Arab region’s publication-productivity, relative to GERD, is above average. In fact, on that indicator, the Arab region ranks even higher than that of North America, Western Europe or Asia. It is more instructive to investigate the productivity of scientific activity in the region. Figure 6 compares scientific productivity, measured by publications relative to population, R&D personnel, GERD and GDP of ten regions. The evidence illustrates that the quantity of published information on science, in Arabic, is minimal. The characterization of the human condition in the region and alternative vision sketched above, while admittedly brief and coloured with the author’s own research interests, delineate a monumental agenda for science as a force for progress. But in addition to feeble human capital and dearth of good job opportunities, the poor suffer limited and diminishing access to physical capital — particularly to land and water in rural areas — and finance. Unemployment is thus inextricably linked with poverty, in the widest sense. Consequently, in a context of increasing unemployment and widening poverty, particularly in societies where no effective social safety nets exist, the role of productive and gainful employment as the conduit out of poverty is crucial. Further, if the recent trends in productivity and real wages persist, the spectre of even deeper underemployment and more massive poverty is sure to haunt the region in the near future. Whatever human capital the region possesses should be effectively utilized in the production of elements of welfare. Unfortunately, in the regional classification of the World Bank, the Arab region suffers the highest unemployment rate in the world . Consequently, high-quality human capital needs to be stressed as an utmost priority in the Arab region. In particular, a bold overhaul of education and training systems is long overdue. The dearth of skill is finally driven by the absence of a dynamic training and re-training system for life-long education. Such a system is essential, particularly in a period of rapid transformation in the economic structure. As could be expected, the poor are deprived of education at higher-than-average rates, especially at higher stages of education and in quality educational tracks, hence reducing their chances for good employment. Tunisia seems to be an exception, though not as glorious a success as hailed by the international financial institutions. Morocco is even less of a success story if poverty is defined in terms more meaningful than income-expenditure shortfall . In spite of major quantitative achievement in enrolment, educational attainment remains low due to widespread illiteracy and relatively limited enrolment, particularly in the higher stages of education. Human-capital accumulation has been lower than in East Asia since 1960, at which time Arab countries enjoyed higher per capita output. More significantly, the gap between the two groups of countries has been widening, as far as educational attainment is concerned . Indeed, there are grave dangers in the continuation of the status quo in human-capital accumulation in the Arab region as well as the crisis in its linkage to the socio-economic system. This situation will force our quantitative assessment of science inputs and outputs to be mostly restricted to R&D in the natural sciences and technology. Exception has to be made in this respect for a number of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of AIDS has resulted in declining life expectancy. In these countries, the decimation of life by a disease that is essentially manageable in rich countries is sad testimony to the selfishness of the powerful segments of humanity.

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Informed by Dossa’s own story of family migration and loss,Afghanistan Remembersis a poignant ethnographic account of the trauma of war. She calls on the reader to recognize and bear witness to the impact of deeper forms of violence. Although extensive literature exists on the violence of war, little attention has been given to the ways in which this violence becomes entrenched and normalized in the inner recesses of everyday life. InAfghanistan Remembers,Parin Dossa examines Afghan women’s recall of violence through memories and food practices in their homeland and its diaspora. Her work reveals how the suffering and trauma of violence has been rendered socially invisible following decades of life in a war-zone. The world’s 200 million Shi’i Muslims express their faith in a multiplicity of ways, united by reverence for the ahl al-bayt, the family of the Prophet. In embracing a pluralistic ethic, fourteen centuries of Shi’i Islam have given rise to diverse traditions and practices across varied geographic and cultural landscapes. The Shi’i World is a comprehensive work authored by leading scholars from assorted disciplines, to provide a better understanding of how Shi’i communities view themselves and articulate their teachings. The topic of the FMEA is Proposed Brand Name Confusability. The FMEA team includes active practitioners in the field of use for the product. Participants are sent all of their materials along with a timeline of when to complete each portion of the simulation process.

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When we first contacted Nora, we asked her to show us several houses the next day. She accommodated our short notice request and was somehow able to coordinate showing us all the hoses we wanted in such a short time frame. While showing us the houses she was able to answer all our questions and provide us will and the details we needed. As we decided to move forward with one of the houses, Nora was incredibly knowledgeable, helpful, and really fought to get us the best bargain. We ended up getting the house at a lower cost then we had even anticipated!!! Nora’s commitment to service did NOT stop after she made the sale! She made sure that every step of the process, such as getting a loan and closing, went as smoothly as possible. She has even been texting us 9 months after closing to ensure that we applied for the Texas Homestead correctly . Overall, can not recommend Nora enough, she is the best of the best. Star Medical Equipment specializes in sales of new, pre-owned and manufacturer-refurbished diagnostic imaging equipment. We provide accessories and parts from leading manufacturers… ACRES, Brent Suddenly at home in Beachburg, Ontario on Sunday, January 25, 2004 at the age of 56 years, with loving companion Janet Hamilton by his side. Loving father of Amanda , of Fort Coulonge, Quebec and Mark of Pembroke, Ontario. ACOTT, Frederick E. Passed away peacefully on Friday, January 23rd, 2004. Dear father to Jacqueline Foisy and loving grandfather to Samara and Dana. ACOTT, Rose L. Died peacefully with family at her side at the Civic Hospital on Wednesday, February 10th 2010. Anne was loved for her adventurous spirit, fierce independence, devotion to family and friends, and love of travel, especially in the Mediterranean region where she lived for extended periods… He was devoted to his family and friends, was an enthusiastic traveller, and was an avid sportsman who will be remembered for his lifelong involvement in community sports organizations. ACKLAND, Walter Ernest Passed away peacefully at the Toronto East General Hospital surrounded by his loving family. He will be missed by his devoted wife of 58 years May Elizabeth , his oldest son Gregory Ernest and wife Kathy, his second son Geoffrey Richard Walter and wife Joanne and his daughter… It is with great sadness that we say goodbye to Sam Achimov, who passed away peacefully at the age of 90, on December 14, 2021 at the Ottawa General Hospital. Born in Montreal, Sam was the son of the late Daniel and the late Emilia Achimov. ACHILLES, Charles Thursday, July 17, 2003 Charles Achilles, age 84, husband of the late Phyllis MacIver. Loving father of Donna Schulze , Barbara Lefebvre , Bill , Deborah and Allan . Cherished grandfather of 11 grandchildren and 7 great-grandchildren.

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Despite the relatively substantial human resources involved in research, the ratio of researchers to total population is still low in Morocco. There are only about 0.5 researchers per inhabitants, against 1.5 in the industrialized countries of Asia, 2 in the EU and 3.7 in the USA . In postsecondary institutions, where most research is done to earn a degree, those involved rarely concern themselves with the practicality of their results. In the main, research in Morocco is a public-sector activity. In the private industrial sector, it is almost non-existent. The private sector is generally not sufficiently advanced or developed to benefit from research. These numbers should be increased, to include the researchers in public facilities within other ministries — in particular the staff of the INRA and the LPEE — as well as private-sector researchers . Numbers of teacher-researchers in postsecondary and management training institutions, 1993 to 1997.

And there was the fashion of the stages of growth, where every student was trying to decide whether their country had reached the take-off stage or not. In all countries of the region there is an urgent requirement to create autonomous and solid institutional frameworks for teaching and research. As well, it is important to see research as a vector of socioeconomic, cultural, and political development. A historical perspective was given on the research system in Morocco so as to contrast it with Egypt. Establishment of regional technical centres that will facilitate technology transfer, plus the execution of thematic and collaborative research programs. The FNR will work to generate and develop a national research fund, supplied both by government and by contributions from economic agents —and from international cooperation. Scientific research activity is measured by the publication rate as listed by UNESCO and evaluated by the science press . According to 1996 data, Morocco and the North African countries contribute only 0.4% of the world’s scientific output. By comparison, the USA dominates with 36%, followed by the EC with 31.5%; Southeast Asia accounts for 15.6%. Modest public outlays on R&D are allocated because this sector does not have the high priority that is placed on agriculture, education or health. The result is that there is no clearly defined policy on such activities, which remain marginalized. As Figure 3 shows, agriculture is the sector in which research is most developed, with 55% of the research units surveyed. It is followed by water with 16%, health with 12% and energy with 7%.

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While there is substantial information on the financial situation of MSMEs, there are no evaluation programs to assess success and failure and to determine needed technical support. For example, small enterprises have been losing capital because they are not receiving additional investment. This means that depreciation of cost effectively does away with the present capital. There is also is a lack of a clear policy and strategy addressing financial and technical assistance, as well as the synchronization of both. Certain solutions, like incubators, produce good results but are limited in scope and cannot be used to solve the national issue of the quality of products. The first is the underdevelopment of representative bodies in MENA in general. The second is the unequal development of the collective consciousness of the various social classes and groups in the region. On the one hand, large entrepreneurs are typically more conscious of their social status and of their economic and political interests than small ones. Research has shown that only an estimated 9% of MSME owners and operators in Egypt have university degrees. Accordingly, no autonomous MSME organizations have evolved in the region. Their under-representation has consistently served to place MSMEs at the mercy of the government as well as other market institutions such as the formal financial sector. In university colleges in Egypt, English and French are slowly replacing the Arabic language as languages of instruction. Even subjects that have long been taught in Arabic, like economics, political science, or business, are now being taught in English. In three or four decades, this could mean a great decline for Arabic. I believe that one indicator of a nation’s progress is what happens to its mother tongue. People cannot be really innovative except in their mother tongue. You can get a PhD but I would not call that really innovative. To be really innovative, you have to write or think in your mother tongue. So what is happening in Egyptian universities is worth a research topic. But of course, nobody is worried about that because of the economism I have been talking about. The economistic and internationalistic view has prevented this from taking enough attention. Consider the realities at the London School of Economics in 1957. As an Egyptian studying economics at LSE, I had no option but to study economic development. This may seem innocent enough, but “economic development” at that time was defined in a particular way to raise per capita income. Worse, countries were judged as underdeveloped according to certain criteria. The implicit logic was that the goal of these underdeveloped countries should be to catch up. If the criteria were defined in terms of human development, per capita income would not have been an appropriate goal or subject for study. This is because one can raise per capita income without solving the problems of the underprivileged, or one can solve the problems of the underprivileged without necessarily achieving high rates of per capita income. The studies in social sciences differ with respect to their dependence on field work using primary sources of data, or on desk work using secondary sources of data. The nature of the problem, the availability of data, and the objective of the study, are important factors that determine which approach to apply. The impact of foreign funding on the quality of research conducted seems to be minimal; it does not have positive impact on the quality of research, as one would have expected. It is difficult to rationalize the indifference of foreign-funding institutions to the quality of the research work produced. One argument is that they usually earmark a certain budget to be spent on research in Egypt and, hence, they have no alternative but to accept the low-quality research produced.

ACKEHURST, Donna On Sunday September 21, 2003, peacefully, in Ottawa General Hospital after a courageous struggle with cancer at the age of 78. Loving wife of the late Donald Ackehurst and beloved mother of John , Kanata and Susan, Ottawa. ACHESON, Mary Winnifred Peacefully at Grace Manor on April 2, 2011 at the age of 97. Predeceased by her loving husband Ross Kenneth , sister Eileen McMillan and brother Charles McQuaid. Dearly beloved mother of Sheila, Janet, Katherine and Patricia . Passed away peacefully on Sunday, January 25, 2015 at the Civic Hospital in Ottawa, in her 98th year of life. She was married to Claude “Poppy” Abrams for over 60 years. She was affectionately known as Kima by her grandchildren and… In hospital on Wednesday, August 6, 2014 at the age of 51. Friends and family may pay their respects at McEvoy-Shields Funeral Home, 1411 Hunt Club Road on Monday, August 11,… ABOU RAHAL, Nouha Peacefully, in hospital, after a valiant battle with cancer on Tuesday, November 29, 2011 at the age of 67 years. Loving mother of Elias , Andrea , Eliana , Emile and Fadi .

  • Their experience must be properly appraised to see if it can be duplicated elsewhere.
  • Finally, I end with an analysis of the challenges that the system must assume if it hopes to successfully achieve this historic turning-point, and cope with the forces that have emerged over the last nine months.
  • As a result, many disenchanted youth turned to politicized, radical religious organizations — either to receive material and socio-emotional support, or simply to vent their anger and challenge the ruling regimes.
  • For this reason, it is important that development initiatives should promote links between the WBGS and the rest of the region, including beneficial contacts between Israelis and Palestinians.
  • Although long-practiced in some Arab African countries, it was only in the 1990s, especially around the 1994 ICPD, that the issue exploded and became politically sensitive.
  • Public establishments account for almost all the research centres surveyed by the CNCPRS .

And Fanny Aberneathy and his two brothers Harry and Clarence… Passed away peacefully on Monday, June 8, 2015 at The Perley and Rideau Veterans’ Health Centre. He is survived by his beloved wife Vera, his daughter Bev , as well as his grandchildren Stephanie,… It is with great sorrow that I, Angelo, share the sad news of my loving and beautiful wife Carmen’s passing on September 27, 2015. She will be greatly missed by all of her family and friends. We would like to give a special thank you to Dr. Andrea Gutauskas for her kindness,… ABDALLAH, Mouhib Elias Peacefully at home on Sunday, January 11, 2004 at the age of 74 years. Loving grandfather of Sarah, Andrew, Rebecca, Justin, and Robbie Jr. Victor Farid Abboud passed away in peace and dignity on August 29, 2015 in Ottawa surrounded by his family. Predeceased by his father Farid and mother Angel, and his brothers Assad and Samir . ABBOUD, Habib Passed away peacefully Thursday, March 9, 2006 in his 76th year.

Many observers have rightly noted that it all goes back to improper or lack of research training both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. To meet the shortage, local, under-staffed institutions began to grant PhDs to under-educated and under-trained students who hardly knew foreign languages or sophisticated methodologies — much less mastering one. This has naturally led to the reproduction of incompetence. This is the stark weakness of Arab social-science research. When combined with the absence of other research imperatives, this situation produces an anomalous scene of many structures and actors milling about, while generating little of much value. The International Human Rights Conference devoted the lion’s share to women’s rights. The most dramatic event in that encounter was the session featuring living case-studies of women victims of domestic and political torture.

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Some deal only with governments— the very embodiment of the present coercive, non-representative and unaccountable power structures. And, when dealing with NGOs, many donors confine their support to ones that are like-minded. Such practices help the dominant powers tighten their grip over societies. Donors, especially large ones, do condition research activity in Arab countries. The emphasis on population control through family planning in populous countries since the mid 1970s is a prominent example . More recently, privatization— in the sense of divestiture— and support to the private sector have become the new mantra. Under capitalist restructuring, with governments reducing their spending and becoming overly eager to attract foreign financing, the influence of donors and aid agencies has mounted. Conversely, lack of high quality, up-to-date and comparable information on social phenomena is a sign of lack of societal and state concern for human progress, let alone a commitment to utilizing scientific methods to engender human development. Not that critical intellectual forces in the region have been sitting idly watching. In response, and in rejection, some have advanced some elements of Arab-Islamic social sciences. These attempts are generally considered to have failed in advancing a coherent body of knowledge capable of serving the presumed functions of science in modern Arab societies. In part, these attempts consisted of re-interpreting Islamic tenets in modern-day terms, or projecting such principles on contemporary social reality. To some analysts, endeavors in this direction represent no more than the recasting of ideological positions in the jargon of science. This is an expression of an identity crisis, not only for science in the region but as an “Arab project” for progress. Finally, funding by governments is likely to diminish further in the future, especially in real terms, if present trends of the state withdrawing from erstwhile “obligations” continue. However, essential as the research-business linkage is, especially in technology development, private business does not represent a viable societal alternative to the state in supporting R&D in Arab countries. This deformed capitalist restructuring is having a dire impact on human welfare in many countries in the Third World. In this alone constitutes an important argument in favour of benevolent science. But, in addition, this brand of capitalism is placing science at greater risk through the downsizing of the state — as expressed through abdication of social responsibility coupled with diminished public expenditure, especially in real terms. In addition, if science includes “social science,” what is “social technology”? That concept incorporates the know-how of societal betterment and, in particular, the quest for progress in less-developed countries which is termed “development.” At the same time, NGOs concerned with governance issues should be encouraged to continue playing an important role in advocacy, in monitoring human rights, and in keeping such issues as women’s rights and democratization on the public agenda. Helping the poor to better express their needs could be an effective means of combating poverty. In all MENA countries, the poor are politically disenfranchised. In many cases, they are not sufficiently aware of their existing rights and entitlements, let alone of the opportunities for taking action to secure a fairer share. Strengthening advocacy activity by local NGOs would help to expose the consequences of government policies, and also to identify the most disadvantaged groups. In constant terms, oil prices have declined by over two thirds since their 1980 peak, affecting not just oil producers but also other countries that rely on worker remittances from oil-rich neighbors. Long-overdue structural adjustments have caused shocks, especially to the poorest segments of MENA societies. Their impact includes the lifting of subsidies on food and housing, rising costs for public services, and rationalization of market prices such as agricultural rents. And while Arab fertility rates have fallen by a third in the past 20 years, from 6.5 to 4.5 births per child-bearer, population growth rates remain above norms in the developing world .

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The most loving dad to Christina , Jennifer , Lisa , and Amy . ACRES, Margaret Priscilla Passed away peacefully at Renfrew Victoria Hospital on Tuesday, December 27, 2011, in her 99th year. Beloved wife of the late Gilbert (Governor General’s Foot Guards). Loving mother of Bob , Donna Scott, and the late Arlene Morris of Petawawa. ACRES, Shirley Anne Passed away peacefully surrounded by her loved ones. Cherished mother of daughters Deborah Acres and Cynthia Robertson ; and son Brian. ACRES, Lillian Elizabeth In Renfrew, Ontario where she has resided for the past three years, formerly of Ottawa, on Saturday, March 24, 2007, in her 95th year. Dear mother of Earl and Delbert ; Nana of Christina, Jennifer, Lisa ,… ACRES, Mary Mae Friday, November 3, 2006, Mae Baxter, age 89, widow of Kenneth Acres. Cherished grandmother of Stephan , Christopher , Roy , James and the late Lee and Anson. ACRES, Gwendoline Elizabeth Peacefully at home on Friday September 23rd, 2005. Loving mother of Marilyn Brown , Linda Wanamaker , Lorna Acres , Arlene Simonovich and Barry . ACKLAND, Michael Mayor of Ancaster Peacefully, Thursday, October 5, 2017 at age 59. Dear brother of Ron “Butch” and the late Judith (Jean-Marc Dumont). Fondly remembered by his nieces and nephews; Marc, Ted, Veronica, Jada, Mathew,… Peacefully at St. Jacques Nursing Home, Embrun on Tuesday, March 17, 2015 at the age of 85. Beloved husband of 61 years to Diny Achtereekte (nee Klein-Swormink). Loving father of John, Jerry , Al , Paul (Hélène), Leo , Trudy and Wendy. ACHTELL, Kirk Passed away on Wednesday November 24, 2004 at the age of 51 years. Beloved husband of Sheila , the son of Lorne Achtell and Dell . Lee was the devoted and loving mother of Susan Aileen , Sharon Elizabeth ,… With deeply saddened hearts we announce that Joan passed away peacefully on November 1, 2019. Joan will be dearly missed by all who knew her and especially Ed, her devoted husband of 61 years. Peacefully, on Saturday, November 1, 2014 at the age of 92.

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Loving father of Heather Burtch, Gail Newton , and Dianne Aylen . Cherished grandfather of Sheri, Alicia, Michael, Greg, Jenny, Alison, Jeff, Mandy and 12… ACE, John “Jack” Morley After a courageous battle with cancer on Sunday, August 1, 2010. Peacefully at Carleton Lodge, on Tuesday, November 5, 2019, at the age of 97. Dear mother of Irene , Ronald , Judy , John , Cindy and David . He is now reunited with his beloved wife, Georgette Charlotte Beyrouti, his parents, Tewfic and Angèle Absi, his sister Nadia, and his brothers, Pierre and Charles. ABRAMSON, Sam In Montreal, on Sabbath , in his one hundred and second year. Loving father and father-in-law of Allen and Diane, and Barry and Jacqueline Abramson, Hannah and Arthur Halpert, and the late Berna. ABRAMSON, Goldie Founder of Kiddytown On Sunday, May 6th, 2007 in her 92nd year. Passed away peacefully on December 12, 2013 at home in the Waterside Retirement Community in Carleton Place, Ontario. Loving mother of Paul Rivers of Norway, Maine, and JoAnne Rivers of Toronto. Maggie was born in Toronto on May 3, 1921 and lived in several areas of Ontario including… Special uncle to Paula Lussier , Joshua Abrams and Rachel and… ABRAMS, Bernard “Owner – Bill’s Joke Shop” Died peacefully on Thursday, August 1, 2002 in his 93rd year. Loving grandfather of Paula, Joshua, Chana, Nina, Rachel and Rivka. ABRAMS, Mary Entered into rest at the Brockville General Hospital on Saturday, June 28, 2008 in her 95th year. Dear mother of Charles Abrams , Beryl Leeder, Robert Abrams and Terry Abrams . ABRAHIM, Ryan Suddenly on Monday, September 1, 2003 at the age of 22. Lovingly remembered by Adrienne Pearson, Patricia and Morgan Waithe (Kristian… ABRAHAM, Nicole It is with great sadness that the family announces the loss of Nicole Abraham, on August 31st, 2011 at the age of 56. ABOUD, Ameen Peacefully on January 24, 2004 at the age of 97 in Carlingview Manor. Beloved brother-in-law to Wedad Aboud ; cherished uncle of many nieces and nephews and all of their children who will forever miss “Uncle Ami”, also predeceased by brothers, Mikhael, Naja Elias, and Dr. Fawzi. ABOUD, McGill Albert Peacefully on Sunday, January 22, 2006, McGill Albert Aboud in his 89th year. Dear dad of Richard of Toronto and Lawrence (Janet Blair-King) of Newmarket. Son of the late Solomon and Latefy Aboud of Smiths Falls…. Survived by his wife Nouhad, and his children Najla , Marie , Mikhael , Youssef , Tony , Raghida , and Georges. He will be missed by his grandchildren Raymond, Richard, Rene,…

This is because women undertake more economic and social activities inside the home, in the form of market-oriented or consumption-oriented economic activities. Hence, there can be a linking, or bridging between research results and policy influence. A second point is that IDRC has the freedom to experiment with a range of modalities. It does experiment with different approaches to providing support to research for development. In the social and economic sphere in this region, IDRC has given broad institutional support to important and promising institutions such as the Economic Research Forum and the Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute. We have supported cross-country networks, not solely within the region, but also at the global level where we have thematic networks addressing a particular problem. This is a modality that IDRC has tended to use quite often in the field of trade and finance, for example.

In some cases, inclusion in a directory is a matter of submission of a freely available form, but with no criteria invoked. As might be expected, the situation is especially bad in the case of social sciences. Ironically, it is possible to get good data on scientific output, as measured by the indicators used in the international comparison, because the sources of information are in developed countries. Annex Table A-4 contains individual US patent registration figures for 1997 for Arab countries. But it is interesting to note that productivity per capita is highest in Bahrain, Kuwait, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, in that order. But note that patent registration is based on country of residence. It is also possible, in principle, to use the citation index utilized in the international comparison to construct individual Arab-country publication indices. The profit motive is, by definition, ineffective in equipping the poor with the capital necessary to combat poverty. For example, providing basic education, or health care, to the poor does not carry a profit margin to tempt private-sector providers. However, means can be found to ensure that the private sector contributes to this task. Despite the devotion of significant resources in recent years, many environmental questions have not been sufficiently explored. There remains a pressing need to improve management of water resources and of waste-water. Urbanization has been extremely rapid and disorganized, affecting even remote villages in the West Bank which now sprawl out along main roads. Means of managing urban expansion must be enhanced, not just in terms of issues such as solid waste, but also in terms of preserving the traditional appearance and physical identity of the country. This is necessary not just for Palestinian well-being, but also for the encouragement of tourism, which has a very large unexploited potential. This is even true of Gaza, which has magnificent beaches that are marred by garbage, untreated sewage and poorly controlled building. Given the array of development challenges facing Palestinians, sustained efforts to improve knowledge and support research activities are crucial.

  • The evidence illustrates that the quantity of published information on science, in Arabic, is minimal.
  • Although extensive literature exists on the violence of war, little attention has been given to the ways in which this violence becomes entrenched and normalized in the inner recesses of everyday life.
  • If this potential is to materialize, however, two conditions are required.
  • Seacoast pollution in Gaza and in Lebanon has not been analyzed, despite its evident seriousness.
  • Beloved mother to Kelli Mellisa Abbott and Raggin Melaina Abbott (Jean-Francois).

Sea-level rise has not been researched properly since a joint study, Vulnerability Assessment to Accelerated Sea-Level Rise, Case Study — Egypt, was published by the Coastal Research Institute and Delft Hydraulics and Resources in 1992. Firstly, we must develop economic technologies for desalinating water. I often tease my American friends by saying that the last great American president was H.S. Because he was the only one who appropriated $15 million to do work on desalination of water; after him no-one else has done so. In other words, the water we are using is less than 0.001% of Earth’s total water. If we can do that, then we could irrigate the 40% of the earth’s surface which is currently unproductive and could feed the world. So, what needs to be pointed out is that the water we use comprises no more than a single drop of the total water on Earth.

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